Who Invented Methadone

Who Invented Methadone?

In a speech by President Richard Nixon in 1971, he pointed to drug addiction as the public’s number one enemy. The problems then included an increase in drug use, the concern of returning soldiers who have become addicted to it, and the lack of effective treatments. As a solution, the President shifted the federal government policy regarding opiate addiction far from the punitive philosophy. He ordered the first federal program to be created for the treatment of opiate addictions with the use of methadone.

What effects are the most common amongst methadone users?

  • Relaxation
  • Sedation
  • Euphoric Feelings
  • Drowsiness

Methadone has the ability to create heroin-like effects, but with lesser intensity and prolonged effectivity that often last for 24 hours. In comparison, the effects of heroin are extremely short-lived, the most occurring in only 2 hours.

Methadone was first synthesized by German scientists back in the World War II.

In history, morphine was supplied to German troops as a pain reliever. Post-dosage testing in high levels, the adverse effects of the drug were discovered. Following the negative effects amongst users, the German military completely abandoned methadone use; however, failed to realize the full potential of its availability.

Post-war, Americans began to take control of the prescription medication for treatment from addiction. In 1960, Vincent Dole M.D. from Rockefeller University had won the New York City Health Research Council Grant for the purpose of studying heroin addiction. Eventually, Dole developed a protocol for daily dose without reaching the ceiling “high” effects.

To this day, methadone is still controversial in a few circles.

Only around 500,000 individuals have participated in methadone maintenance program around the world. Critics of methadone use are still considering this treatment as just another way of legalizing addiction. As such, these people still favor opiate addiction treatments that are based on complete abstinence.

Methadone maintenance treatment has already become a billion-dollar industry not just in the U.S., but in many countries all over the world.

The practice is continuing to expand in the U.S., Europe, and Canada. In other places, this practice is expanding and is continuing to give profit to drug companies. Along the process, addicted individuals wanting to get off the drugs and make better changes in their lives are still using methadone. This is the reason why many still defend methadone use as a genuine treatment for opiate addiction.

In Russia for instance, methadone formulations continue to center social discussions. Treating with methadone to combat opiate addiction is not just illegal. The promotion of methadone use and talking about maintaining methadone drugs in favorable conditions remain to be prosecutable according to law. For this reason, narcotic addicts in Russia continue to enroll in narcotic detox and rehab programs.

The United States is a home to a number of methadone clinics. In a 2011 survey, approximately 245, 000 individuals have already been enrolled in opiate detoxification programs. Half of this population needed continued detoxification and maintenance services and around 20% were those that needed treatment against the use of opiates. Methadone is the first line of treatment for these programs.

 

Chatroulette

Chatroulette – What is it and Why is it Addictive?

Chatroulette is an online activity which brings together two random people face to face via webcam. It derives its name from Russian roulette which is a game of chance. In chatroulette, the “players” never know who they’re going to meet online next, which is part of the allure and addictiveness of chatroulette.

According to comScore, more than 4 million people accessed the website of chatroulette in February 2016 alone. And that number is growing daily. But is chatroulette just the latest internet fad or a service that provides some value to its users?

Chatroulette History and Growth

The website was developed in November 2009 by a 17 year old Russian student, Andrey Ternovskiy who wanted to chat with interesting people using Skype-like video and audio. He coded chatroulette in 2 days and within a month the site had a few hundred visitors without any marketing whatsoever. By January 2010 it had 944,000 visitors and in February 2010, just 3 months after its launch, it drew in 3.9 million unique visitors. Today approximately 500,000 people access the site on a daily basis. These numbers put chatroulette firmly on the map of the latest trend to strike the internet.

Chatroulette Playing Interface

Chatroulette’s user interface is simple, even sparse. Visitors who access chatroulette don’t require a login or any other kind of verification. Once they’re on the site, the service prompts them to enable their webcam. Once their webcam is enabled, the user is able to see other users of the service in a completely random order. If the user doesn’t like what is being shown on their partner’s web stream, they simply click “Next” and move on to another chat partner. This phenomenon is called “being nexted”.

Chatroulette’s Addictiveness

The lure of chatroulette is the same as the lure of gambling – to see what the next roll of dice will bring, or in chatroulette’s case, who it will bring. Part of chatroulette’s attraction is to see who else is using the site and what they’re doing. Participants often try to outdo each other in an attempt to see who can be the most entertaining personality on the Web and avoid getting “nexted” the longest. Another lure is the chance to peek into a complete stranger’s life and see what happens. The thrill of the unknown and the unpredictable are a huge factor in chatroulette’s success and addictiveness.

Chatroulette Demographics

Chatroulette has been criticized as being a haven for perverts and depraved people due to its incentive for voyeurism. One study describes the chatroulette demographic as 89% male, 9% female, and 13% perverts. Parents should be advised that if their child is using chatroulette they have a good chance of coming across inappropriate content.

Is chatroulette a passing fad or can it be used for more useful pursuits, like social networking or dating? Even terminologies about it differ – some call it a game, some a service, while others dub it a cultural phenomenon. Only time will tell if this website will evolve or fade out, but experts agree that the service will explore future benefits that may be extracted from it. One thing’s for sure – chatroulette is not for the faint of heart!