What Is Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

What Is Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, PTSD? Psychiatric Disorder Caused by a Trauma Event, an Outside Influence

Psychiatry had emphasized the deficiencies of individuals as the source of mental problems. Before the 1970s, combat veterans, crime victims and other trauma survivors were usually blamed for their symptoms and regarded as weak. The high rate of psychiatric disorders suffered by Vietnam vets led to research by the Veterans Administration, which helped to establish the validity of PTSD. According to the DSM IV TR, a person has to experience a traumatic event that there was threatened death, serious injury to oneself or others which involved terror, extreme fear and/or helplessness.

PTSD and Reliving the Event

The event is constantly replayed in one or more ways. There can be continual memories of the trauma which includes thoughts, images or perceptions. There can be nightmares of the incident.

Some PTSD sufferers feel the event is recurring and are re-experiencing it and may also have flashbacks, hallucinations and illusions. There can be intense psychological distress and physiological reactions to cues that symbolize or resemble an aspect of the event.

PTSD and Avoidance

A person avoids cues associated with the trauma and emotions are numbed in several ways. There can be attempts to avoid thoughts, emotions, talking, people, places or activities that evoke memories of the event.

Some patients with PTSD may repress important memories of the event, have less interest or taking part in formerly important activities or feel detached from others. There can be a limited gamut of feelings or a sense of doom.

PTSD and Other Symptoms

There can be indications of PTSD that were not present before the traumatic event. Some examples of these other symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder include insomnia, short temper, increased startle response, decreased concentration and hyper-vigilance, over-alertness.

PTSD and Intervention

Critical Incident Stress Debriefing (CISD) is a therapy offered to people within two days following a civilian or combat trauma. It is intended to avert the development of PTSD.

The PTSD treatment usually has four stages: describing the traumatic event, sharing emotional reactions to it, discussing symptoms and reassurance that these are normal responses, then, a discussion of coping methods.

PTSD and Psychotherapy

There are several psychotherapy methods used to treat PTSD. These methods include:

  • Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy – There are two methods are desensitization which attempts to decrease the symptoms of PTSD by addressing the fear and anxiety management training, which teaches strategies for reducing anxiety. Strategies include relaxation training, biofeedback, distraction techniques or cognitive restructuring.
  • Psychodynamic Therapy – This helps the patient improve a sense of self, learn new ways of coping and how to deal with emotions related to the trauma.
  • Discussion Groups – These groups are usually designed for survivors of specific traumas. They help people recognize that others who had the same experience have identical emotions and reacted in similar ways.
  • Family Therapy – This is recommended for people whose family has been affected by their PTSD symptoms.

The Prognosis for PTSD

Those who receive CISD as soon as possible after the event have the best prognosis for total recovery. A combination of peer-group meetings and individual psychotherapy are often successful. Treatment may require several years and the individual is likely to relapse.

For some people, PTSD becomes a chronic disorder that can last for decades or the rest of their lives. They have the poorest prognosis for recovery. Unfortunately, some don’t respond to any of the current treatments for PTSD.

Preventing PTSD

Some traumas, such as disasters and accidents, can never be eliminated. Traumas caused by people’s intention, such as mass murders, would require major societal changes to reduce their occurrences and brutality. At present, the use of CISD and psychotherapy appear to be the best form of prevention for these survivors while for those who are under the influence of drugs, heroin centers miami can help.

What is Generalized Anxiety Disorder

What is Generalized Anxiety Disorder?: The Signs, Symptoms and Treatment of GAD

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) affects 4 to 6.8 million Americans, making GAD one of the most common anxiety disorders in the United States. While symptoms can be severe, with treatment generalized anxiety disorder can be successfully controlled.

Anxiety is a normal, and often helpful, response to stressful situations. Anxiety motivates people to drive safely, get to work on time, and be extra vigilant in dangerous circumstances.

People with generalized anxiety disorder, however, live in a state of constant worry and anxiety even when no cause for anxiety exists. Anxiety associated with GAD interferes with daily life on multiple levels. Signs of anxiety disorders can make day-to-day functioning almost impossible.

GAD and Symptoms of Anxiety Attacks

Generalized anxiety disorder symptoms are chronic: while there may be days when symptoms worsen or lessen, symptoms are almost always present. The sudden onset of anxiety that many people associate with symptoms of anxiety attacks bear more resemblance to panic attacks than GAD.

GAD is characterized by constant worry, tension and anxiety. People with generalized anxiety disorder are often aware that their anxiety is unwarranted or out of proportion to stressful events, but this knowledge does little to diminish the effect of the anxiety disorder. Generalized anxiety disorder causes a range of mental and physical symptoms, including:

  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Excessive anxiety
  • Frequent urination
  • Headaches
  • Hyperalert startle reflexes
  • Irritability
  • Muscle aches
  • Sleep disturbances.

Causes of Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Exactly what triggers generalized anxiety disorder is unclear. Gender certainly increases the risk of GAD: twice as many women as men are diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder.

Genetics , chemical imbalances in the brain and lifestyle / environmental factors have all been suggested as possible causes of generalized anxiety disorder. Onset of GAD can occur at any stage of life, but the disorder develops most often between childhood and middle age.

Depression, Anxiety Disorders and GAD

Generalized anxiety disorder is often seen in combination with depression, anxiety disorders other than GAD, and substance abuse. GAD may present with obsessive compulsive disorder, panic attack symptoms, social anxiety or phobias.

Cocaine, alcohol, and marijuana abuse have all been linked to generalized anxiety disorder. A diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder without accompanying depression, anxiety disorders or substance abuse is considered unusual.

Treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Fortunately generalized anxiety disorder symptoms respond well to proper treatment. Generalized anxiety disorder treatment includes the use of anti-anxiety medication and antidepressants. Talk therapy for generalized anxiety disorder teaches people coping strategies for dealing with anxiety and reducing stress levels. if GAD presents with depression or other secondary conditions both disorders must be addressed for relied of anxiety disorder symptoms.

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy

What is Generalized Anxiety Disorder?: Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Tools for Managing Anxiety

There are a wide variety of mental health problems where research has suggested sufferers are likely to benefit from undertaking a course of therapy. Examples of commonly used therapy approaches include the following: Cognitive Analytical Therapy (CAT), Family Therapy, Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT), Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT) and Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT).

This article aims to explore the condition and treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder with key areas to be examined listed below.

  • What is Generalized Anxiety Disorder?
  • Symptoms of Generalized Anxiety Disorder
  • CBT tools for anxiety management

What is Generalized Anxiety Disorder?

Generalized anxiety disorder, usually abbreviated to GAD, belongs under the umbrella of anxiety disorder which include conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorder, panic disorder and different phobias. This disorder is widely regarded as the most common form of anxiety disorder and sufferers will often have immediately after one worry which gets resolved another to take its place and so the worry cycle continues.

At the core is the need for recognition that it is not the specific events or circumstances which cause the worry and anxiety but the way the sufferers actually perceives them to be threats or problematic.

Symptoms of Generalized Anxiety Disorder

The key difference between generalized anxiety disorder and other anxiety disorders is that while many disorders are about specific issues such as health, socialising, animals, GAD is not about any single fear. Sufferers of GAD will feel intense levels of anxiety and severe worry which continues to negatively impact their life over a long period of time.

Distress and interruption to the sufferer’s life is very common and may have impacts in terms of employment, maintaining relationships and achieving goals or aspirations. High levels of anxiety are also likely to have major impacts upon one’s ability to interact with others and limit the enjoyment one would otherwise have been able to gain through engaging in social activity. Eventually severe worry and anxiety will also take a heavy toll on one’s emotional, physical and psychological health and well-being.

CBT Tools for Anxiety Management

There are several key tools and techniques within the framework of CBT that may provide valuable support and help to those affected by GAD. Wilding & Milne have identified the following main approaches for anxiety management: distraction exercises, overcoming avoidance through graded exposure therapy and relaxation techniques such as deep breathing and progressive muscle relaxation.

Mindfulness meditation is another skill that may provide an additional tool to overcoming anxiety.